Systems of Systems (SoS) are a class of systems whose constituents are autonomous systems.They collaborate in a specific hierarchy to achieve a common goal (called mission) that none of them can accomplish alone. These constituents have the particularity of owning independent operability and evolution, which results in unpredictable missions.They can also be heterogeneous,increasing the complexity of the SoS. So, providing a precise plan of action to manage and capture these missions is not a trivial task.The work of this thesis aims to overcome this shortcoming, by proposing a modular, reusable, generic and formal solution to describe SoS and their constituents. It consists in the definition of a new Architecture Description Language (ADL) « ArchSoS », dedicated to SoS, and thus offering a high level of abstraction allowing to reduce the complexity of this type of systems.First, we define a reference architecture for SoS, inspired from the ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010 standard. This architecture is used to associate a concrete syntax, which can be graphical or textual, to ArchSoS. Then, we adopt Bigraphic Reactive Systems (BRS) to define the abstract and formal syntax of this language. The interest of using this formalism lies in the fact that the two structural and behavioral aspects are considered respectively.On the other hand, this formal syntax of ArchSoS can also be represtend with a graphical visual view and an algebraic textual view.We complete the definition of ArchSoS by associating an operational semantic, based on rewriting logic, to this language. All aspects embedded in ArchSoS-based SoS descriptions (hierarchy, functional constraints, events, missions, etc.) find their semantic interpretation in the Maude strategy language, which is an extension of the Maude language. The use of this extension has filled the gap that existed in the basic version of Maude, where the rewriting of an SoS states can be guided in order to accomplish any pair of missions sequentially and even in parallel.The validation of our theoretical contributions is done on a practical and concrete case study, it consists of applying all the phases of our approach (specification, execution of the model and its analysis) to conceive and prototype the dynamic architecture of a Crisis Response SoS (CRSoS).